Sunday, 31 August 2008

Zohar - Parshat Shoftim - The Double Edged Sword of the Shema

ZOHAR PARSHAT SHOFTIM Daf 274b (Raya Meheymna)

MATOK MIDVASH pp 198-200


“Judges and officers shall you appoint in all your gates that G-d your L-rd gives to you for your tribes, and they shall judge the nation with righteous judgment. In this verse it lists judges and officers – there is the commandment to appoint judges and officers i.e. even though judgment belongs to G-d, but through His abundant love for Israel, He gave judgment into their hands. Nevertheless the Holy One Blessed be He also sits in judgment amongst them, and this is as it stated [in the following verse in Psalms], and moreover it is written (Psalms 75:8) “For G-d is the Judge.” The name Elokim, [as in this verse of Psalms] which is the name representing judgment, sits and judges with the judges in judgment. And it explains the matter of judgment according to the secret ‘for’ [כי] Elokim is the Judge. The word כי – ‘for’ has the letter כ and the letter י i.e. the Yud as it is simply, is the secret of Chochma [Wisdom i.e. The Hebrew letter Yud represents wisdom.] And from the letter Yud [which can also be spelled out fully יו"ד] comes out the full יו"ד whose total [numerical] value is 20. [The letter Yud by itself in Hebrew has the numerical value of 10. However when the letter is spelled out – expanded – to represent the word it is, the numerical value is 20.] This is to teach about Binah [Understanding] which is included with Chochmah. After this “כיit is written, Elokim is the Judge.” The name Elokim which is Binah judges with the strength of wisdom. And as is written [in the continuation of this verse] זה ישפיל – ‘He lowers this one,” – ה"א ה"אthe word זה has the numerical value of 12, parallels the letter Hey when it is spelled in full – of Binah, and Hey when it is spelled in full – of Malchut i.e. ה"א ה"א – which is the secret of the two courts. And as is written [in the continuation of the verse] וזה ירים – “And He raises this one,” this is ו' ו' [the word Zeh as it appears in the second half of the verse – valued at 12 – is equal to two Vavs, each valued at 6.] They are the secret of the Vav of Tiferet and the Vav of Yesod, which is the secret of the two witnesses (see Daf 275a).

The four deaths of the court [that the judges can administer for various sins] are ordered here from the lightest to the most stringent i.e. the sword, strangulation, stoning, burning. And this is like the opinion of Rabbi Shimon in Tractate Sanhedrin 99b. [In this translation, only the sword is dealt with.]

The commandment after this is to judge by the sword, to judge by strangulation, to judge in the judgment of stoning, to judge in the judgement of burning. This means that after there is judgment, there is the Mitzvah to judge the guilty through the 4 death penalties of the court, and it asks – to judge by the sword – who? And it answers to S”M* i.e. one has to endeavour in Mitzvos and good deeds to nullify the strength of the evil inclination which is S”M. And also in action – in reality – if a person was overwhelmed by the power of the evil inclination until G-d forbid a person needs the death penalty of the sword, now as he is killed, his sin is atoned and the strength of the S”M in him is cut off and nullified. This is what is written, (Isaiah 34:5) “For my sword has been sated in the heavens.” First my sword will be sated in the heavens from the blood of the minister of Edom which is the S”M, and afterwards, “It shall descend upon Edom.” This means upon His nation below (similar to what is written (Isaiah 24:21) ‘And on that day that Hashem will deal with the hosts of heaven above and upon the kings of the earth upon the earth.’

And it continues and says the sword of the Holy One Blessed be He which is the sword [of the death penalty] – there is hinted in it all the four letters of the name of G-d [the Tetragrammaton] i.e. the ten Sefirot of Z”A – because the judgment is only completed through the partnership of all ten Sefirot i.e. י' the letter Yud of the name of G-d hints to the head of the sword, for all the conduct is in accordance with the decree of the head, which are the Sefirot of Keter and Chochmah. The Vav of the Tetragrammaton – is the body of the sword – corresponds to the Va”K which are the essential workers of judgment and mercy. Hey Hey – these two letters of the Tetragrammaton are the two mouths – points of the sword, because the action of judgment in action comes about through the Malchut which is the mouth that decrees the decree of judgment of the power of the mouth above which is the Binah, through it judgments are awoken. And upon them it says, ‘Righteousness righteousness shall you pursue’ because they rule two judgments i.e. the judgment from the mouth of the court above which is Binah, and the judgment through the mouth of the court below which is Malchut. And from here it is known that there is judgment on every small matter, to such a degree that our rabbis said (Chullin 7b) no person bruises his finger below through Malchut until permission is given for him from above – from the court of Binah. When the sword which is the name of the Tetragrammaton is clothed in its sheath which is the name of אדנות according to the secret of unification as below, there through the unification the judgment is quietened and nullified.

And it continues and says, through the Kriat Shema [the reading of the Shema], the S”M is killed – for the Tetragrammaton which is the sword of the Holy One Blessed be He – about it is said, (Psalms 149:6) “The lofty praises of G-d are in the throat,” through the reading of the Shema that Israel read. And through this, “A double edged sword,” of the Holy One Blessed be He, is “In their hand” – of the children of Israel to kill the S”M. As our sages have said (Berachot 5a) anyone who reads the Shema on his bed [i.e. when he goes to sleep at night], it is as if he holds a double edged sword in his hand (and all the more so the reading of the Shema in the morning and evening prayers which are Torah obligations.) And the matter of nullifying the judgment is made through the Tzaddik the life of all worlds – the foundation of the world which is Yesod, includes 18 blessings of the Amidah prayer, that in it we begin “G-d open my lips and my mouth…” – that the initial letters of these words [in the original Hebrew] make up the word אשתו [his wife,] which is Malchut i.e. the sheath of the sword. For with 18 blessings in it, the sword enters into the sheath by means of the unification that is made through [the two names of G-d] i.e. the Tetragrammaton and אדנות. And then, (Esther 7:10) “The anger of the king subsided” [“The anger of the King subsided”], which is that the judgment that was awoken in the beginning is nullified completely, for already the S”M has been silenced through the reading of the Shema in the morning prayers, and the two names of G-d ** י-א-ה-ד... are joined [by means of intertwining the two names] and the unification of Zu”N is made and bestows much abundance to all worlds. (Ramak, the G”RA and commentaries.)

* S”M is the abbreviation representing the name of the angel of destruction. It is forbidden to pronounce the names of any angel except for those recited in general daily prayer and whose names we also give to people.

** When various names of G-d are intertwined i.e. by taking the first letter of one, and then follow it with the first letter of another, and then continue with the second letter of the first name and then the second letter of the second name etc., this produces a Yichud – a joining of His names and through this, blessing comes about. It is forbidden to pronounce these names when they appear in this way, and therefore the entire Yichud has not been written, but can be read in the original Zohar text. One may certainly scan the name with the eyes, but it is forbidden to pronounce the name as is written this way.


Bold print: Original Zohar

Ordinary text: Matok Midvash

[Square brackets]: ELIYAHU ben PINCHAS

(Round brackets): Either the source being quoted e.g. Proverbs etc., or alternatively used to quote the kabbalistic language as discussed in Matok Midvash. The Matok Midvash formats the Nigleh side of things in an ordinary print, and the Nistar terminology in Rashi script. I’ve therefore put the Rashi script – the Nistar terminology in round brackets.


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Saturday, 30 August 2008

Rambam - Laws of Charity 10:7 - The Highest Level of Charity!



“There are eight levels to charity – one above the other. The greatest level – and there is no level greater than this – is one who strengthens the hand of a Jew who is poor, and he gives him a gift or a loan, or he makes a partnership with him or he finds him work in order to strengthen his hand, until he is no longer required to ask others. And about this it says (Leviticus 25:35) ‘And you shall strengthen him – the proselyte or resident so that he shall live with you.’ This means to say, strengthen him until he will not fall and be in need.”


Could the Rambam possibly have written any other Halacha throughout all his works as important as this one?! If there was an eleventh commandment after the Ten Commandments, perhaps this would be it!

G-d’s entire purpose in the world revolves around the concept of giving. (Psalms 89:3) “The world is built upon kindness.” G-d strengthens man so that he is able to achieve. On those occasions when a man is not filled with strength, he well knows the difficulty of not being able to do anything at all. He feels worthless – continually dependant upon others for help. What good is the poor person? Perhaps on our list of things we most want not to happen to us is to fall into poverty. The world speaks of the upper class, the middle class and the lower class. Those in the upper class are able not only to take care of themselves, but help many, many others as well. Those in the middle class try to simply get by with the basics of life, yet they seem to enjoy a certain sense of satisfaction with worldly possessions. And then there are the lower class – those who are often unable to afford to even take care of themselves.

Naturally there are many levels to each of these classes. Once we reach the lower class, we seem to enter a realm that none of us wish to tread in. There are some huge tests to deal with at this level. For some, these tests may involve the very question of life itself! What point is there in life if one simply cannot afford to live? What purpose is there for a person who cannot take care of himself? Not for nothing does the Torah speak of the poor man as being dead. He is unable to give to others; this being the greatest gift of all. One who is able to give is able to emulate his Creator – the Giver of everything. When one lacks, one feels no better than a stomach receiving food and unable to digest or eliminate anything from his body!

The Rambam begins his conclusion of the laws of charity. In the next few laws, he will enumerate the different levels – eight in total – for which we should pay particular attention, so that we can know just how to give of ourselves correctly.

Most of us find ourselves in a quandary at all times, wondering just how we should deal with our money. What should we purchase with it? Where should we invest it? How much should we spend this month? Perhaps, after all the questions related to the “Me” and “I” side of money, some of us turn our attention to the “You.” And if we think to ourselves concerning the difficulty of how to spend our money when it comes to ourselves, imagine our difficulties when it comes to deciding what to do with money when it comes to others?!

How much should we give and to who?! The Rambam does not tell us how much to give –although the Torah speaks elsewhere of the figure of 10% - for one who is “poor”, and 20% of one’s wealth – for those who are wealthy. In truth there is much to learn regarding the calculation of these amounts and exactly how much we each need to give. This needs to be discussed with an appropriate Rabbinical Torah authority.

At the same time as having an obligation to give to others, we must surely be careful not to destroy ourselves in this process! Yet the entire point of the Rambam’s laws regarding charity is to teach us that there is no way out. We each must give something! Once we take an accounting and a reckoning – much like an accountant would do to work out the tax necessary for each person each year – we must dispense of this additional wealth immediately. But there is certainly good news for us all! Whereas our taxes end up in the bank accounts of people we may not even ever meet or know what they are doing with our money – taking it quite often totally against our wills and squandering it for their own private luxuries, the money we give to charity truly aids everybody! The receiver is blessed with something he so much needs. G-d becomes filled with true Divine joy as He sees acts of kindness taking place in His world. And beyond this, the giver himself will be blessed as well.

The well known story is told regarding a man who owned a very large field. As the crops were harvested each year, he would take 10% of it and give it to charity – to the Kohen (and the Levite – see Numbers 18:20-29) as the Torah commands. The man died, leaving his son to take over the business. His son however, felt that 10% was just a little too much to give, and so he decided that he would increase his profits by giving just 9% a year! The next year instead of the harvest of 1000 stalks of wheat, the harvest came out at only 900. The man was furious at his loss, and felt that because he had lost so much (in spite of his “generous” act of giving) the next year he would only give away 8% of his crop! It seems Someone else was in charge, and the next year, the harvest yielded just 800 stalks of wheat. The man was more than furious at His Creator. Surely he had given his share fairly?! And so, the next year, he gave just 7%. Indeed, the next year following that, the man’s field harvested just 700. And so each year he would continue, until finally he was left with only 100 stalks of wheat left. The town’s people came through to him celebrating his “good fortune”! Meat, and only the best wine were served at the feast on this “festive occasion!” The man himself was broken, as he cried from the depths of his heart at his bad fortune – while the town was dancing for joy! He asked them why they were filled with such joy. “The Torah commands us to give 10% of our earnings to charity, to the Kohen and Levite,” they replied, “Since you are now harvesting only 100 stalks of wheat, although you had originally harvested 1000, it must surely be a sign that G-d has promoted you – and you have now become the Kohen!”

While we do not understand G-d’s governmental providence upon the world and why it is that some have more than others, it is definitely a given, that we are being watched – and that in accordance with what we give – based upon what we have – so will G-d act commensurately with each of us. There is nowhere to hide when it comes to wealth.

Imagine for just a moment the surprise so many of us will have when Moshiach – the Messiah finally redeems himself (may it be immediately!) Each of us will look at the size of our bank accounts, only to realise that the money that then remains there will be practically worthless. The entire world will be filled with every delicacy and delight. Each of us will have as much of what we want whenever we wish it – not having to rely on another human being for help – ever again! Imagine now the embarrassment of those whose bank accounts are so large, that it is only thanks to massive computers that such figures can be stored away somewhere! While those who lack will not be embarrassed of what they could have done with their money (which they lack), those who have much will suddenly realise the tremendous good they COULD have done – but didn’t! That wealth is only worthwhile now, before the final redemption. In fact, it is that wealth that will help the redemption come even sooner!

Of course the extremely wealthy need to consider saving their money for a rainy day too… but how much should be saved, and how much given? It is by no means an easy test! “Do not say I will study Torah when I have free time… because perhaps you will not have free time.” Each of us can excuse ourselves from learning Torah today – because we have much to do. When we retire – one day of course – and *then* we will have time - *then* we will study! Such excuses are no better off than simple procrastination. It is just the wiles of the inclination misdirecting us to stay far away from study. Who knows… perhaps when one retires, one will not actually have any strength to study, or perhaps one’s vision will not be as strong as it once was. Perhaps one will have never learned the Hebrew language, how to read properly or understand the texts. One cannot simply switch on to learning Torah when one retires! Torah is something that needs to be studied every day – even when there simply isn’t time!

So too, with the commandment of charity. It is true, one may want to save all one’s wealth for a rainy day… but what if that rainy day never actually comes? Won’t it be a waste to realise the good that could have come from the wealth one did have?! And so… perhaps when *that* rainy day does come, one may well not be here to deal with one’s wealth, because it will have already been given to those – who may be far less worthy of it altogether!

And so, the time is now. And we must give – even when we feel we can’t – and all the more so when we really can! But just how are we to give now?! And to whom?!

Is giving to the “Save the Dolphins” a worthy charity?! Should we give to the “Feed the Whale” [sic] organisation? How does the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals fit on the list?! What of giving to friends – who may not be Jewish?! There are so many to give to – and we only have 10% to give away! People may pass you along the street asking for wealth. Someone dressed in rags. Another lying on the street lacking legs (G-d forbid.) A Yeshiva student may ask for money to support himself so that he can learn Torah… and yet another person may simply want to start his married life with a sum of money to purchase an apartment! What do we do – or do we simply make up our own minds as to what we feel is best?!

Take care of the homeless dogs, and perhaps this will make for a far better world! Give more to your countries government – perhaps they are truly in need, and with such great work that they do, we can expect that they will hasten Moshiach arriving immediately! Perhaps giving to the fish of the sea and supporting them may actually help in eventually providing food for the Leviathan – that large fish that we will partake of at the time of the final redemption.

Don’t forget, there are hundreds of sports clubs and the like pulling you towards them in the hope that you will take care of their latest golf courses that they are building. Here too, our money can go… down the hole!

When it comes to giving, we have *only* the Torah that we can turn to for true assistance. And nobody says it all quite as well as the Rambam.

There are 8 degrees of giving. The highest has nothing to do with any of our wonderful causes we’ve mentioned. Rather it has to do with allowing another to live – just like we do. And while many may feel that not everyone can own a mansion and the latest luxury vehicle available, if one owns such a luxury oneself or drives one, indeed we must take another’s needs into account just the same as ourselves, because they too are people – just as we are. While we may not be physically able to help another have these things… it is certainly our duty to wish it for them and never to insult them for their own selfish needs (not taking a look at ourselves of course!)

The highest level of charity is to become a partner with someone else, help him purchase a business so that he can support himself, give him a loan or an outright gift! In none of these cases does the recipient feel ashamed, because instead, he feels important enough to know that he is about to embark in starting his life with success.

The Rambam’s choice of verse is most appropriate. “And *you* shall *strengthen* him – the proselyte or resident so that *he shall live with you.*” Rashi says the following, “Do not allow him to decline and fall, and it will be difficult to lift him up. Rather strengthen him from *the moment* of the faltering of his hand. To what is this comparable? To a burden on top of a donkey. While it is still on top of the donkey, one person can hold it and set it in place. Once it falls to the ground, five people cannot set it in place.”

The moment a person approaches another asking for help - *this* is the time to help (even if the golf club is just one million dollars away from completing their latest course!) If one will refuse to help them then, it could well be that the “load” will fall. Once it has fallen, then it could well be that even 5 people will not be of any use to help this person any longer. Life is too short to await the fate of a person in need. We always have excuses that prevent us from giving to the one in need, but what will we say when we turn around one day to see the often disastrous consequences of not having strengthened the hand of another in need? Too many of us know well what the embarrassment of not having wealth has done to another…

Just how far should we go to help? What does it mean that ‘he shall live with you’?

The Torah portion of Re’eh (Deuteronomy 15:7-8) gives us enough of a hint to understand the true value of giving and just how far we should go:

“When there will be amongst you a very poor person of one of your brothers in one of your gates in your land that G-d your L-rd gives to you, do not close your heart, and do not close your hand from the poor person. You shall surely open your hand for him and lend him a pledge – to whatever he is lacking.”

The Torah continues vv 9-10:

“…and your eye will be evil against your poor brother and you won’t give him, and he will call to G-d, and it will be a sin to you. You shall surely give him, and you heart should not be grieved when you give to him, because *it is because of this thing* that G‑d your L-rd will bless you in all your deeds and in all the performance of your hand.”

Rashi asks regarding the poor person – Who takes preference? He replied – The one who needs first, he takes preference. He then points out that your brother takes preference – your brother from your father even before your brother from your mother. And – The poor of your city take precedence over the poor of another city. In a dramatic finale to verse 7, Rashi says, “If you do not give to him, in the end you will become just like your poor brother!”

Instead as Rashi continues in v8, “Give him, even many times! And if he doesn’t want a gift, then give him a loan. Give him whatever *he* is lacking – even a horse to ride upon (a car?!) and even a servant to run before him (a chauffer?)” And once again in a dramatic statement Rashi concludes his commentary on v8 – whatever is lacking *for him*. These are the same words used when G-d created a helpmate for Adam – He created her (Chava / Eve) ‘for him.’ Even if another is lacking his soul-mate, part of the commandment of charity is to aid him in finding an appropriate match! (Perhaps even in helping the entire marriage to take place as well!)

There are always those Jews who wish to be meticulous regarding a number of Mitzvos. One may often see them checking their Etrogim (Citrus fruits) preparing for the festival of Sukkot. They may have magnifying glasses to check for the slightest blemish in the fruit. Their eyes ever so large to make certain that the Etrog is just perfect! They may take great care to wear the finest pair of Tefillin – beautiful and large. Some may be careful to wear even two pairs as well (although very often are not concerned if there are others who also wish this but simply cannot afford them!)

When it comes to the commandment of charity, things are no different. If we want to do things right, they begin with this very commandment – to make someone else self‑sufficient – in every sense of the word. If that means finding him a wife – then so be it. If it means helping pay for the wedding expenses – so be it. If it means helping him purchase a car – and even a chauffer, it seems that Rashi is quite in favour! Whatever he is lacking – that’s what he needs. It’s important to him.

While we continue feeling that the good things in life are only for ourselves, the Rambam and Rashi turn the tables around. We need to look out for the exact same things for others – without judgement. And just as we are particular with the perfection of our “lemons” for Sukkot, so too should we be as particular regarding setting another Jew on his feet – even if it means our taking a magnifying glass to see just how much he is actually crying out! If we help him now – by becoming a partner with him, offering him a job – giving him our business, lending him money or giving him a gift – without having to cause him embarrassment, we can be certain too that G-d will bless each of us accordingly – because in fact, this is the root for all blessing. If we turn away, the Torah warns us, we are no different than anybody else. We are all the same. And just as G-d brings poverty to one and wealth to another, it is just as easy for Him to turn the tables around.

They say that if you give a man a fish, you feed him for the day. Teach him to fish, and you feed him for a life time! I think the author of this quote may not have read this Rambam. He may have forgotten that even the owners of the lakes and the seas (governments?!) have their charges if you want to fish on “their” premises. And so, even when one does know how to fish, even this does not solve the problem of being fed for a lifetime.

Do you really want to feed another for a lifetime? Go ahead… teach him to fish. But more than this, give him a job as well!

Sunday, 24 August 2008

HaYom Yom - 23 Menachem Av - A G-dly Soul in the Most Material Reality

HaYom Yom – 23 Menachem Av

“In the winter of 5652 (1891-2) when my father taught me in the book of Tanya “The second soul in Israel is an actual portion of G-dliness from above (ממעל ממש)”, he explained to me that the connotations of the word “from above” and “actual” are opposites. “From above” means the most spiritual of spiritual, and “actual” means the most material of material. And he explained that this is the superiority of the second soul [the G-dly soul] that even though it is the most spiritual of spiritual, it has an effect in the most material of material.”

While it may seem that we are simply “ourselves”, there is in reality a lot more to our beings than just that. Our bodies are made up of limbs, veins and arteries. We have organs and senses. A heart, lungs, a brain, a liver, kidneys and a variety of other material matters that make up who we are. And then of course there is the real “us”. An ethereal concept of who we really are, although we can’t quite seem to touch our real selves! As one intern doctor described to his teacher, “I have dissected many human bodies… but I have never found a soul…” And yet it is certainly there. It makes us who we are – if we’ll only just take ourselves away from the world of science for a moment, and realise this is our reality.

The modern world, with exception to a number of scientists – tells us that we do indeed have a soul. Kabbalah teaches that in fact we have five! Each level higher than the next, able to conceive of higher levels of Divinity. In fact, if only we would “tap in” to what these levels are, we would be working on extremely high levels of divine inspiration and prophecy!

The Alter Rebbe – knowing well all these points, tells us clearly that in fact every Jew has two souls – an animalistic soul and a G-dly soul.

Imagine for a moment the heart divided into its two greatest loves. Its love for the lusts of the physical world – and its other GREAT love for G-d! As each beat pumps, the blood rushing around the body finds itself confused in its desire to do what it really wants. With each beat it changes its mind – from one moment to the next. In a period of two seconds, one fluctuates from desiring the entire material world with all its desires and lusts. The largest mansion, the fanciest car, the best clothing and the finest foods! We dream of what we can have, and just how wonderful our bodies will feel with all its desires fulfilled. Heaven!

And one moment later, reality sets in and we feel ourselves – our souls. We feel a G-dly spark inside ourselves wake up… What do we really want? Nothing, but G-d. As the Alter Rebbe would say, “G-d, I do not want your world-to-come, nor do I want your Garden of Eden… I just want you!” The true soul comes forward shouting, screaming and crying – all I want is YOU. I am You. I am truly a part of You – G-d. And if so, there is nothing else that I wish for – but You.

But the heart beats once again – pump… and those flashing and fleeting images fade away into oblivion, as we once again realise we are back grounded in the most physical material world ever created. Who wants G-d, when you can have so much material good?!

The Alter Rebbe well understood the concepts of Emotional Intelligence long before the great psychologists of today! We are not just physical beings. We are made up of a brain and a heart. We think and we care. We aim for understanding – and so often get caught up in emotion. We think about good, but our heart, filled with the blood of physicality pumps out its opposite. Sometimes though, every now and again, the tables are turned, and as we think good, our hearts hear that beauty, and the flow of blood pumping, itself becomes good. It rushes up towards the brain with fuel, allowing it to truly think straight, bringing even more good thought into the heart, which once again pumps out even more good, until the mind, the mouth and the limbs put the good into action, causing goodness to oneself and the world itself!

With this great battle in front of us, this animal soul fighting the G-dly – and the G-dly fighting the animal, how will things turn out?! Is it really all a battle? Perhaps the two are really friends, striving for the same goal – to serve G-d, but because of the differences of opinion in how to go about things, we experience the tensions and frustrations of combining the physical together with the spiritual.

Imagine the scene for just a moment – two of the greatest people in the world, sitting and learning a chapter in Tanya. The Rebbe Rashab learning together with his son – just about 11 or 12 years old – but in grooming to become the next leader of the entire Lubavitch movement – the leader of the next generation! The subject? The G-dly soul… combined with a pinch of physicality! But which was the reality, the physical or the spiritual? The gross material or the ethereal G-dly?! Or was it about both?!

Chassidut teaches about the Oneness of G-d. Each day a Jew must recite the reading of the Shema “Hear Israel, the L-rd our G-d, the L-rd is One” at least twice a day. Most will say this sentence at least four times a day, while others (for one reason or another) may say it even more. It’s one of the first sentences a Jewish baby will master – and it may well be the last one he will ever say. In truth, there is nothing in the world but for this. There is nothing but G-d, for He is everything and everything is Him. This is why we constantly say these words – to remind ourselves that there is no reality in the world – nothing at all, except for Him. Even the lowliest mosquitoes in the bottom of the Earth where no human ever goes, and the highest angels in the highest heavens – are all equal before Him. The unholy evil husk that turns man away from his purpose in this world – and the most spiritual archangel – are just the same before G-d. Material and spiritual are all one. There is nothing that separates them. Nothing of course, except for the way we think about things.

The Rebbe Rashab teaches his son that the Alter Rebbe “made a mistake” in his terminology and expression. Having spent 22 years writing his masterpiece, the Alter Rebbe apparently did not put enough effort into his language. He spoke about the second soul of a Jew – the G-dly portion that rests within each one of us – and he said that while it comes from above – the highest highs in fact, it is absolute physicality! The Hebrew word “Mamash” – ממש – denotes absolute physicality. Its root letters have the connotation of “MaShash” – משש – meaning to feel and to touch. MaShash also means “reality” and “palpability”.

How then could the holy Rebbe contradict himself?! How could he speak of the highest level of spirituality in the same sentence as absolute physicality?!

The Rebbe Rashab explained to his son, that there was no contradiction. It is all one and the same. The greatness of the highest levels of the soul is that they are able to affect changes and make a difference in the lowest levels of physicality.

We may not be angels but we are certainly not animals either. It is true though that we live in a world where material drives and behaviour are most manifest. In fact, so much so, that we may feel disillusioned that we are disconnected from G-d at times. That our physicality has removed us from G-d. But as the Baal Shem Tov teaches “A Jew does not want, nor can he be disconnected from G-d.” Likewise the Baal Shem Tov would teach “One does not know how precious is the body of a Jew to G-d.”

There is no such thing as a world of materiality and a world of spirituality. It is all one. Our two souls connect with each other, and compliment each other. Together they work in harmony. Our duty is to know when to wake up each soul to make it have its desired effect – and how to awaken it. Just as there are many keys on a piano – and each has their own tone, so too our soul levels have their own tones as well. Just as we must select the right note at the correct time in order for beautiful melodies to resonate within the world, so too do we need to awaken the correct soul at the correct time to achieve its particular goal.

As for the G-dly soul – it is active – always. In fact, even when we think we are completely immersed in physicality, the Rebbe Rashab teaches, there is no contradiction – there too, our G-dliness is awoken, achieving wondrous things! There… in the lowest low – there too is G-d, and it is there that the greatest good is being achieved for the entire world. The G-dly soul awakens right there amongst the grossest physicality, clothing herself in the material and affecting changes for ourselves and the world – for the good.

As King David said so beautifully in Psalms 139:8

“אם אסק שמים שם אתה, ואציעה שאול הנך” – “If I ascend to heaven, You are there. If I make my bed in the lowest depths – behold, You are there.”

G-d makes the spiritual into material. Our duty is to turn the physical into spiritual.

Wednesday, 13 August 2008

Rambam - Laws of Charity 10:6 - Encourage Others to Give and Become Greater than the Giver








“One who encourages others to give charity and pushes them [drives them to do this good act] – his reward is greater than the one who gives! As it says, (Isaiah 32:17) “And the product of Tzeddakah is peace.” And concerning those who collect funds for charity and similar to them it states, (Daniel 12:3) “And those who teach righteousness to the multitudes [will shine] like the stars.”


Everybody in this world is able to give. Even those lacking fortunes of wealth! Although the Rambam points out in the previous law that there are some who actually cannot give for lack of funds, there he mentions that one can still give through sympathising with another. This law applies when one finds oneself in the presence of another who is in need at that point in time. What about when one is not in the presence of those in need? How can one give then?!

The beauty of Torah is that it teaches that nobody is considered to be lacking. Even if it may seem like one is unable to give because one lacks the finances, one still has the ability to give in other ways. We are all G-dly. We are all givers. Even when one is not in the presence of someone in need – one can still give. Not only this, but his giving can be even greater than another who does give! This is achieved through the power of one’s words.

It is not for nothing that the Torah is made up of words. Words are the most powerful things in existence! In fact, the Hebrew word for “Word” – דבר – is the exact same word for the word “Thing.” A word is a thing, and with it one can achieve everything in existence. The world was created through the words of G-d – because He spoke things and the world came into being. “Let there be…” and “There was…” Through words, one can build up another, encouraging them to do better, or one can G-d forbid quite literally destroy another. This is the power of the word!




Imagine a Torah lesson taking place at your home. The Rabbi ends the lesson with an appeal to everybody to make some donation to aid his institution – to allow him to continue his work of outreach and aiding others. It’s true, you may not have the ability to give. In fact you may have your own charities that you give to already. As you sit chatting to friends in the group, you discuss with them the topic that possibly the Rabbi should have been an anaesthesiologist. He need not have studied for years about learning about the body, because you feel his lectures contain everything necessary to put everybody to sleep even without any chemicals! Everybody has a good laugh and all feel that their money could be given to far better causes than the already “well paid” “anaesthesiologist”!

Now, imagine the same scene again. This time, as you talk to your friends, you discuss how valuable the lesson was – how much one could gain from these words of wisdom, how much such a person could give to others if he had the finances available to continue his work uninterrupted. You still don’t have the money to give him, but instead you encourage others to give – those who you know who do actually have the ability to.

Notice the power of your words in even such a simple situation. Notice how, that without even being able to give directly, you are able to encourage others with the free air granted you so that you can articulate your words. Your mouth, while usually a vessel to receive, becomes a vessel that gives.


Those who encourage others are rewarded more than the giver him or herself. Sometimes a person lacks the initiative and support to go forwards with a project – especially when it applies to giving of their own wealth. When one encourages another, one literally gives them the life necessary to feel that their efforts are worth it, that they are doing something good for the world. They may even feel a sense of achievement at having now given to a cause that others think is good.

The power of life and death is in the tongue. A person who therefore uses his tongue to give life, is therefore greater than the giver himself who may not have given without the encouragement. He revives “the dead” with his words. He therefore truly brings peace into the world. He encourages another to give, giving life to that person. And when that person gives another, the other is revived too. And so, peace is brought into the world. And each action continues to bring more goodness into the world. Just as the voice of one shouting in a large open area bounces off mountains echoing it’s way through them as it sails through the air, so too do our encouraging words literally cause the world to be sustained – especially when we cause others to give of their wealth to those in need.

Interestingly enough, the verse the Rambam uses to quote from is located at chapter 32 and verse 17 of the book of Isaiah. In Hebrew, the Gematria (the numerical value) 32 is equivalent to the Hebrew word Lev – Heart… The number 17 is the same as the Hebrew word Tov – Good! It is this good heart of a person that speaks words of kindness and goodness to another, that then encourages them to act out on the deed. Even if you yourself cannot give, you can use your power of speech to encourage another. The value of your speech can be worth far more than the wealth in your bank account. In fact, it’s a great lesson for life in general. When one lacks something, one can always give, just by encouraging another!

The Rambam quotes another verse to illustrate the value of encouraging another – this time from the book of Daniel. Daniel lived at the time that the Jewish people were in the exile of Bavel – of King Nebuchanezzar the Rasha. This book in the Tanach is made up of some of the most amazing prophesies that will occur at the time of the “End of Days.” This verse that the Rambam quotes, relates directly to the final prophesy. Since the Torah always ends off with something good, it is most appropriate that Daniel’s prophesy ends off with this inspirational point as well.

“The wise shall shine like the radiance of the firmament – and those who teach righteousness [will shine] like the stars… forever and ever.”

Those with wisdom know that life is far more than just what we have financially and what we can give from that. Life is all about teaching (and fulfilling) the correct values and value systems to others. Although sometimes we ourselves cannot give materially, we can always encourage others. We can teach others, spur them on positively – and perhaps this will result in those people giving to others too – hopefully financially as well. It is these things that will bring in the final redemption – for Zion will be redeemed through Tzeddakah – a time when we will all realise that G-dliness is about recognising the greatness of every other person, bringing it out into the open, showing another that he/she too is a G-dly spark of Divine energy – and that with this, he can do wonders! When we encourage another, speaking words of kindness, we turn the world into a better place. Everybody benefits – and those who have received encouragement will be able to give others more too. And so, the goodness that emanates outwards from your few words of kindness to another – actually reach to thousands and thousands – and generation upon generation.




Imagine yourself teaching another the value of doing kindness, of giving charity to another. See yourself shining brightly for the light you have become. You are a star, illuminating the world at large. You have become a lamplighter and brought light and life to the world. All this… without even having given one single cent.

Monday, 11 August 2008

No Need to Mourn Any Longer - Tisha Be'Av is Over!

With a sigh of relief, no longer in the three weeks, and with the fast of the 9th of Av behind us, we can all breath in and out deeply as we realise it’s simply all been worth it! In fact, having made it through 25 hours without food and water may well make us think we’ve done our share in mourning for the Temple. With this now behind us, we can simply get back into general worldly events, take it easy, eat our meat and drink our wine, play our music, and simply enjoy life!

We’ve got a good 52 weeks ahead of us until we’ll have to do this all again, so let’s take a break and as they say – let them good times roll!

It may seem like that for many of us, but is this the real truth? Is that what Tisha BeAv was/is all about?! Yet we must ask ourselves, if indeed we have done everything as we should have – why is it then that Moshiach has still not revealed himself?! Where *is* the Temple?! Did we take our fasting seriously enough to make an impact upon ourselves and the world at large? We sat and cried. We went without food and water for the day. For some who took things more seriously, we did not wear newly laundered garments through the entire 9 days – in fact 9 and a half to be exact! In order to really feel and experience the moments of pain without a Temple, many of us did not even bathe or shower during these 9 days! Those taking things seriously also abstained from wine and meat (except for Shabbat) during these 9 days. Some may even have accepted this custom for the entire 3 weeks of mourning. But we turn around, believing we have achieved everything necessary – and simply slip into the fast lane of life once again, perhaps wondering what in fact it was all about in the first place!

As the Torah says, one who lives in a generation in which the Temple was not built – it was as if *he* destroyed it! The Temple in ruins is not a sign of something that happened 2000 years ago. It is something that is happening today. Each day that goes by, we are to imagine an army of Roman villains, murderers and thugs surrounding the Temple, gleefully bearing their swords at every Jew around them as they swipe away at whoever treads in their paths. In addition to this they carry torches of fire which they spread around them simply destroying whatever they find in their path that has any resemblance to holiness at all. This is not figurative… it is real!

To any thinking person who has imagined just how large the Temple really was, it is totally inconceivable to imagine how it was that a Roman army – no matter how strong, could have burned down a Temple of the proportions that it was. There were no airplanes fuelled with gallons of ignitable liquid ready to explode upon impact! There were no wicked pilots flying two of them into the Temple, waiting for the explosions to eventually cause the entire building to collapse. What could the Romans have possibly had to cause such destruction to such a building of such huge physical proportions?! What could they have done?! Lit torches and thrown them about? Would that have sufficed to destroy the hard stones that made up the building?!

One can barely imagine the horrific moment in Jerusalem 2000 years ago as this entire area was consumed with perhaps the hugest fire in history. Imagine the smoke alone! Where did it come from? Was it all man-made?

The Torah shares with us the real story. While we may think the fires that burned were all man-made, the truth is that there was an angel above – Gavriel – the angel of fire, who had been so commanded to “take care” of the Temple below. He held in his hand balls of fire ready to throw from the heavens. It was these balls of fire that would destroy the Temple. Yet, even Gavriel – the angel of fire – was reluctant to throw the fire and destroy G-d’s very own Temple! He held the fire in his hands for 6 years as he cooled it’s flames, hoping that G-d would reconsider and not have to bring destruction. Eventually another angel stepped in complaining to G-d, - “G-d, how can you allow that people should think that they were responsible for such destruction…?” Immediately, G-d Himself sent a fire of infinite proportions down from the heavens – and consumed His very own Temple

The Temple was not destroyed by man. Not even the most powerful Roman has the power to destroy such a physical edifice! It was G-d Himself. The powerful fire was G-d-made – and from G-d, fires of infinite proportions are certainly not impossible! And so, the Temple was taken from us. Yet, in truth, G-d did tell us one thing. It was only a physical building that had been destroyed. While hundreds of years before that, the building had embedded within it a soul… prayer, sincerity and kindness – hundreds of years later, all these soul-qualities had been removed, by the Jewish people themselves. And so, all that was left to destroy, was a skeleton. A physical skeleton lacking anything of concrete value to it. Perhaps then, even a Roman could destroy this! All in all, everybody had a say in the matter. The Romans credited themselves with the destruction – not realising they could never do it without G-d’s will, and G-d Himself took full responsibility for the action at hand… while the Jewish people themselves were able to take responsibility for having removed the essence of the Temple itself. Each had the ability to claim a share in the monstrous fire that totally consumed our holy Temple – the Beit HaMikdash.

Is it all over now that we can pray at the Kotel – the only surviving (part) wall of the Temple?! Is our fasting on the 9th of Av sufficient? Hardly!

In fact, not only does the Halacha discuss various external signs of mourning necessary to remember the destruction – by for example leaving an area of one’s home not painted, or by tearing one’s shirt when one approaches the Kotel if one has not seen it for 30 days… all laws brought in the Shulchan Aruch near the end of the first section – Orach Chaim. But more than this, strangely enough, the entire corpus of law as brought in the Shulchan Aruch actually begins with… mourning for the Temple!

How odd it is that most Jews who begin to get heavily involved in the intricacies of Jewish law simply skip through the first sections of the Shulchan Aruch – moving to more “interesting laws” – Shabbat, Kashrut, Niddah – things that can be heavily debated – that can truly test one’s intellectual capacity! Sure, we need to actually fulfil these Halachot, but the debates surrounding the many arguments can make for an exciting day in Kollel! Why bother with the laws of waking up in the morning… saying Modeh Ani… or washing one’s hands? Laws that of course – “everyone” knows already?!

Imagine for just a moment the scene: 120 years have gone by, and we are standing in the presence of The Legal Court Above. They ask us if we studied any Torah. We reply with a resounding YES! “Great,” they say, “If so, you surely began at the beginning?” We reply in the affirmative, after all, we really have studied how to wake up and most of us are certainly authorities! Then they ask us another question, “Did you also observe the laws you studied… or did you perhaps just enjoy the give-and-take of the Halachic argument?!” Once again, taking our Torah seriously, we respond that we studied in order to do. And so… the Legal Court Above begins as it opens the authoritative code of Jewish law – the Shulchan Aruch. The book is opened in front of them and they begin to read…

“A person should strengthen himself like a lion to stand in the morning to serve his Creator, that he should awaken the dawn…”

The Halacha continues by telling us to realise that we are in the presence of G-d all day long and that we need to be aware of this at all times. Most of us manage to get to grips with being (semi) conscious of a Creator during the day. And for some, waking up to awaken the dawn can be a regular event (although of course, we could ask ourselves if we really take this seriously!)

Then comes the second law of the entire code of Jewish Law – a four volume work encompassing every law from waking up in the morning, to observing the Sabbath day, to keeping the laws of Kashrut, the laws of forbidden interest, how to slaughter an animal, to deal honestly in business, how to get married… and a variety of other daily life topics – enough to keep us busy for at least one life time:

“One who gets up early in the morning to supplicate before his Creator should intend for those hours when the “guards” change. These are at the third point during the night, and at the end of the second third of the night, and at the third end of the night – that the prayer than one prays at those hours regarding the destruction of the Temple and upon the exile are favourable!”

And law three continues: “It is fitting for every G-d fearing person to be distressed (saddened) regarding the destruction of the Temple!”

And law four: “A little supplication with intention is better than a lot without intention!”

Imagine now for just a moment, standing in front of The Legal Court Above as they begin reciting the very first laws of the Shulchan Aruch! Here we were so involved with Kashrut, Shabbat, Niddah etc… and yet, we begin to ask ourselves, did we actually care if the Temple was destroyed?! Indeed, every 9th day of Av each year we fasted, but was that the sole amount of effort we put in to appreciating what the Temple was… weeping for it?!

Perhaps the message of Tisha BeAv is one which needs to be brought into the rest of the year. It is a message which cries out from the day itself and echoes through the world, each and every day. In fact it resonates at certain times of the evening even more. The voice of the Shechina (Indwelling Divine Presence) cries out – and calls out to each of us – “Be aware, a generation in which the Temple is not built, it is as if that generation actually destroyed the Temple!” But there is a cure. There is a way to truly feel the pain of the Shechina. A way to connect with her – every single day (or rather night!)

Perhaps it is finally time to connect – even once in our lifetimes. Perhaps once a year, once a month, or even once a week. In fact, as the Shulchan Aruch points out, it is at those times of the night that the Shechina cries – that she too listens to our cries – as the prophet Jeremiah points out “Arise, call out at night…”

This time – the sweetest hour, is a time for us to get in touch with G-d. A time when the world is silent, but the Shechina is heard crying. We too are silent… but when we awaken at this time, we too are filled with tears as we connect and feel the pain of the Shechina.

What must we do and how do we connect with the Shechina? When is this time and how can we go about connecting with her – now?! What is the time known as?!

It is the sweetest hour. A time of Divine favour. It is a time when a thread of mercy is spread over all who awaken to cry for the Temple – for the Shechina in exile – for every Jew who feels lost in this world, chasing after worldly passions which the soul loathes.

Join us for our next article which will speak of this beautiful moment – a moment when Jew and Shechina kiss. A time when the soul is finally able to break from her body to reunite with her lover. It is the sweetest hour

Friday, 8 August 2008

Take Away This Yom Tov!


The Tzemach Tzedek (Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn – the third Rebbe of Chabad) who used to refer to the Rebbe [R. Yisrael] of Ruzhin (the great-grandson of the Maggid of Mezritch) as “the holy Ruzhiner,” once related: “The holy Ruzhiner would not tolerate any melancholy nor even bitterness (i.e. even on the 9th day of Av) – with the result that his Chassidim became playful. One Tishah BeAv they occupied themselves for a while tossing burs at each other. They then decided to clamber on to the roof of the Beis Midrash, and to lower a noose over the entrance. Whoever walked in the door could then be lassoed and promptly hoisted on to the roof. The prank succeeded until sure enough, who should walk in but – their Rebbe, the Ruzhiner. From up there it was hard to tell one hat from another, and only when the Tzaddik was halfway up did they identify him.

When they had lowered him to the ground he exclaimed: ‘Master of the Universe! If your children do not observe Your Yom Tov, then take it away from them!’

--- As quoted from Sefer HaMinhagim. From a talk of the Previous Rebbe at the close of Tishah BeAv (deferred from Shabbos to Sunday) 5701 (1941)

Perhaps we should contemplate the deeper meaning of this story and appreciate that while the day of Tisha BeAv is a reality and we are to take it most seriously… in fact, it would be far better for us not to have to celebrate it. After all, we really don’t know how to in any case!

May we be blessed that G-d in His mercy remove this Yom Tov (that we are having to observe now) immediately - and replace it instead with a Yom Tov that we will be delighted to fulfil in all it's requirements - with the coming of Moshiach and the final redemption NOW!

Thursday, 7 August 2008

Partnerships: How Can We Help You?



Even the bees and the flowers know about partnerships! This world is all about bees and flowers… Bees need nectar which flowers can give them. In return, bees help spread pollen for the flowers. Then bees create honey for humans. It’s really all about unity… and everybody benefits. Isn't nature wonderful?!

Finding ourselves in the current period of time – not just the three weeks – but with the general lack of concern for the value of a human life – let alone a Jewish life –should perhaps make us even more aware of what it means to share in the difficulties of another – as if they were our own.

Our freedom – when the Temple was destroyed - was taken away from us because we lacked unity. (We may think we are free, but as can clearly be seen by the financial constraints we are all undergoing right now, that freedom is certainly a relative term!)

Perhaps, then, our greatest asset today would be to encourage unity – on all fronts. The financial being no exception. We may sometimes forget that the highest level of charity is not just giving money to another, or in fact, even loaning it to them, but in reality, helping them be successful financially on their own by becoming PARTNERS with others – in whatever way one can. As the biblical commentator Rashi points out in relation to helping a poor person (a depressed person? A person who has lost all hope?) – that when a donkey has a load upon it so that it can continue on it’s journey, then even if this load wobbles a little, one or two people can still steady the load on it’s back… If however, the massive load falls off, then even many people will battle to get the load back on again.

The Internet has taught us that unity can be achieved no matter where one is. Unity – even in a physical sense. Money can be sent from one country to another in one second using a simple tool such as Paypal. Video conferencing makes for an almost personal touch of seeing someone thousands of miles away. Today, if we can’t manage to find partners in our own neighbourhood, we can still know that partnerships can be created even thousands of miles apart!

We are currently working on establishing a Yeshiva. But it’s not the regular kind at all, because we have structured it with a variety of programs for everyone. We don’t want people to just be “in learning”. We want to create a place of opportunity for everyone to be able to have the means to take care of themselves – always, and never having to rely on constantly having to “embarrass” themselves with asking for help. As the Torah teaches, Torah study without Derech Eretz (a job, work?) will not be successful. Both are needed. Even the biblical commentator Rashi owned a vineyard to bring in his income – so that he could be free to learn Torah.

To achieve these goals, we have set up a variety of sales opportunities for people to take part in – no matter where in the world they find themselves.


We would like to become partners with you.




We have a range of items for sale, as well as setting up a blog which teaches Torah and allows others to take part in sponsoring articles in memory of loved ones. These sales items can be shipped to anywhere in the world and we’d like to become partners with you with all of this.

As for us, we’re striving for UNITY! We are in need of bringing ourselves together to actually help each other out – TOGETHER! No longer are we a generation looking for jobs on our own, submitting CV’s to companies so that we can have a job for ourselves. Today, it’s about being prepared to help another – so that in turn, they will help us. As the Torah teaches, one who prays for his friend who has the same difficulty – will be answered first! What greater way of bringing blessing to oneself than trying to partner with another who is also in need of the same thing?!

Perhaps more than anything – the Creator of the world is waiting for us to finally turn to each other with humility to say that we actually need each other – no matter how much or how little we have.

Our Yeshiva has already set up four wonderful partnerships. We have set up a partnership with an authority in the Torah world – Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum – to help sell his books and to work with him in furthering his organisation’s goals.

We have also set up a partnership with a very special and unique individual – Nissin Konikov, a professional photographer who is no longer able to engage in his photography as he did years ago – due to a medical condition. But because he cannot run around at Semachot taking photographs, does not mean he should lack an income from his photography. We too have formed a partnership – and we have uploaded his beautiful images onto our blog for people to purchase. In this way, he is able to earn income passively – exactly what he is in need of.

We have set up a partnership with Ilana Atia the editor of the fascinating and stimulating Journal B’Or HaTorah. B’Or HaTorah provides articles that combine Science, Art and Medicine with Torah. By providing another outlet for selling these journals we help to spread this interesting form of Torah knowledge while also aiding in covering costs to produce this journal.

We have another wonderful partnership with Rosemary Kahn who is a talented teacher, published author and very creative and inspiring woman. We have already uploaded a few articles written by Rosemary Kahn and encourage our fellow Jew to make a donation in the merit of a loved one so that we can pay her for her articles. In addition, we are working towards obtaining sponsorship to publishing 4 beautiful children’s picture books with a Jewish theme that Rosemary Kahn has written.

Our greatest partnership is our Shidduch service helping you (or a relative or a friend) to find your life partner.

Our international Tehillim group unites and makes partners of every Jewish woman around the globe – at least once a week!

We moderate an Internet Group called “Global Torah” that helps you to find your partner in learning Torah.

We have another Internet Group called Acts of Goodness of Kindness, helping those who have something to give to find the appropriate partner to whom to give to.

But we want to further our partnerships with others – with you!


We would be more than happy to hear your ideas for what we could offer you on the blog. But if you have nothing to offer at this point in time, we would be delighted to offer you the possibility of working together with us in marketing a range of beautiful Torah images amongst others. We also send custom designed gifts to those in Jersualem for special occasions and Yamim Tovim. People around the world wishing to send gifts to family in Jerusalem and Beitar can order their gifts directly from us and we deliver these to them.

In addition there are countless sponsoring opportunities we have running – whether for money raised for the Yeshiva itself, or even for writing articles. Those with a flair for writing and would like to be paid for their writing should let us know what they can offer, and as we find people interested in sponsoring such articles we will be happy to make a partnership with you – to contribute to what we are doing. In addition for those helping to raise money for articles that are already being written, we will create a partnership with this income generated, giving you a good commission for this worthy work.

The Jewish people are more in need of unity now – than in any other period of history. This means we need to get together – to actually become one. To be able to relate to each other as individuals – whose needs and desires are just the same as everybody else’s.


Are you ready to make a new one?! Moshiach will be brought into this world because we will do so together – none of us can make it happen on our own. So too, as we progress in our day to day lives, we are in need of creating partnerships with each other. This must be done… NOW!

This is what we can offer you from our side. Now, it’s up to you to tell us what you can add to our program – or how we can add to yours.


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